Acta Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun. 2020, 68, 707-718
Published online 2020-08-30

Effect of a Fermented Mixture of Papaya Leaf and Seed Meal on Production Traits and Intestinal Ecology of the Indonesian Indigenous Crossbred Chickens

Sugiharto Sugiharto, Endang Widiastuti, Isroli Isroli, Hanny Indrat Wahyuni, Turrini Yudiarti

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia (50275)

Received May 5, 2020
Accepted July 7, 2020

The work investigated the impact of a fermented mixture of papaya leaf and seed meal (FERM) on production traits, biochemical indices, intestinal ecology and carcass proportion of the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chickens (ICC). A 300 day-old ICC were assigned to five groups and fed on starter (1–4 weeks) and finisher diets (5–8 weeks) containing corn, soybean (CONT) or diets containing 1% (FERM1), 2.5% (FERM25), 5% (FERM5) or 7.5% (FERM75) of FERM. On week 8, blood was collected from birds prior to slaughter. The increased levels of FERM linearly reduced (P < 0.05) feed conversion and feed cost per kg weight gain, and increased (P < 0.05) income over feed cost of chickens. The relative weight of proventriculus linearly reduced (P < 0.05) with the enhanced contents of dietary FERM. The haemoglobin, erythrocytes and haematocrit values linearly reduced (P < 0.05) as the proportions of FERM enhanced. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) levels were greater (P < 0.05) in FERM1 and FERM25 than that in control. The number of heterophils was greater (P < 0.05) in FERM1 than that in FERM25 and FERM5, but was not distinct from CONT and FERM75. The increased levels of FERM linearly increased (P < 0.05) thrombocytes values. Feeding FERM at 2.5% resulted in higher (P < 0.05) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ratio than that of control and FERM1. FERM reduced (P < 0.05) serum content of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). FERM75 had higher (P < 0.05) level of creatinine than control, FERM1 and FERM25. In duodenum, the increased levels of FERM linearly (P < 0.05) increased crypt depth (CD). At 7.5%, FERM reduced (P < 0.05) CD and enhanced (P < 0.05) villus height (VH) to CD ratio in jejunum. In ileum, CD linearly elevated (P < 0.05) with the increased FERM, while feeding 2.5% FERM enhanced (P < 0.05) VH and VH to CD ratio. In conclusion, FERM was beneficial in improving economic performance, immune responses, physiological condition and intestinal morphology of ICC.


The project was sponsored by Diponegoro University, grant number 329-88/UN7.P4.3/PP/2019. Tri A. Sartono, Diyyani, Bellinda, Ilham Muhammad and Adyaksa are acknowledged for his assistance during the in vivo trial.


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