Acta Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun. 2009, 57, 271-278
Published online 2014-10-10

Zoning of erosion potential of water accumulated in snow cover based on climatological data analysis

Jana Smolíková, Hana Pokladníková, František Toman

Ústav aplikované a krajinné ekologie, Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita v Brně, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno, Česká republika

Melting of snow in winter and early spring often causes soil erosion. The results of erosion studies show that the runoff generated in the cold period can cause more intensive erosion than in the warm half year. By analysis of the monthly catchment of suspended sediments, it was found maximum of suspended sediments in the spring likely as effect of the spring melting of snow. Erosion caused by water from melting snow in our conditions does not reach the same intensity as the erosion caused by torrential rainfall. However, the torrential rainfall has only a local character, while the spring melting of snow usually affects larger territory. Erosive potential of water stored in snow cover can be established on the basis of the quantity of water resulting from melting snow and the speed of melting snow. Erosion caused by melting snow is given by quantity and the maximum speed of water runoff, which may be enhanced by rainfall, occurring in parallel with the snow melting. The total soil loss due to melting snow is also influenced by other factors: soil moisture, which affects the size of infiltration, soil freezing, the topography, the protective effect of vegetation, soil erodibility and implemented erosion control measures.
The work analyzed erosive potential of snow cover during the cold period 1981/82 to 2007/2008 for the part of the Czech Republic, which falls within the scope of the Brno branch of the Czech Hy­dro­me­teo­ro­lo­gi­cal Institute (CHMI). For zoning of erosive potential of snow cover in the area of interest 22 climatological stations has been chosen (with regard to their equitable representation in different altitudes and different climatic conditions).
The work brings erosive potential determination of water stored in snow cover. Its size corresponds to the altitude and climatic conditions represented by climatic region (according to Estimated Ecological Pedological Unit – EPEU) of investigational sites. Closeness of the relationship, expressed as a coefficient of correlation is 0.794, respectively 0.844. By the GIS interpolation on the basis of altitude a map of the erosive potential of the water stored in snow cover for the field of interest was processed.


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